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All about Bows

Original Article by The CD String School © 1998 - Please use all info. ¨ ver 0.60 Expanded by Gennady Filimonov

Introduction France; England; Germany;


A good bow is often considered as important as the violin itself. Students should not overlook the importance of possessing a reasonable bow. The best bows are without question French. They are sought after for their exceptional qualities which secure a fine, rich and rounded sound. They are followed in quality by English bows, though early English bows compare well with French bows. English bows are more sturdy and stable, lying half way between French and German bows in style and framework. German bows come last, and are very popular in their mass produced and affordable quantities. Remarkably, no other country has a tradition or school of bow making. As with English bows, some of the earlier makers produced their best bows. Oistrakh, though very fond of French bows ( he would buy a whole bunch every visit to Paris ) played with one of the original German Nurnbergers. In early times, it was common practice for violin makers and shops to stamp the bows supplied by others.

Pernambuco wood ( Brazil wood ) ( Tourte discovered South American Pernambuco to be the best wood, after having experimented with various other materials ) is used for making a bow. This wood is heavier than water ( it sinks ). The average weight of a violin bow is 60 grams ; a viola bow 70 gr., and a Cello bow averages 80 gr. Bow hairs since the middle ages have consisted of horse hair. North American horse hair is stronger and more robust than Asian hair, which is finer and more silky in texture. No more than 5% of the hair is suitably cylindrical and regular to be used for bows. Black hair is too coarse ( therefore used on double basses ). Synthetic nylon substitutes do not produce the same cohesive and smooth tone. Surprisingly to some people, the tonal qualities of bows fall into 2 categories; "dark" sounding & "soprano" like qualities. Lamy would fall into the former category, and Voirin into the latter. In all cases, however, a good bow possesses a compact and rounded tone, and adheres to the string to a high extent, ensuring a substantial "bass" component in the sound. A stiff or cheaper bow does not "hold" the sound, as it glides superficially over the string without "sinking in."


A Transitional bow was used in Mannheim for the compositions of Tartini, Haydn and Mozart. F.Tourte & The Dodds made them. Wilhelm Cramer ( 1745-99 ), a Mannheim violinist went to London in 1772. The type of bow he used is called "The Cramer bow". Tartini was also involved in improving bows, around 1730, using lighter wood and using a straighter stick ( as opposed to a convex curve ) He also established the octagonal form of the bow at the heel. . The Cramer bow was also quite straight, but Tourte Pere used a decidedly concave stick as used nowadays. From an illustration in Leopold Mozart's Violinschule, it can be seen that convex bows were still being used in Germany for some time after these improvements.


FRANCOIS XAVIER TOURTE (1747 - 1835) was a Frenchman who, though trained as a watchmaker, quickly changed his focus to making bows for playing western classical string instruments such as the violin. Initially a clock maker, he went on to design the modern bow, thanks to his apprenticeship with his father, Louis Tourte Pre ( c.1720 - 1780 ) , also bow maker. F.X.Tourte is considered to be the single most important figure in bringing the bow into its modern form. Tourte's father also made bows, and initially he set up business with F.X.'s brother. They quarreled, however, and went their separate ways. Tourte's bows were a great improvement on existing forms of his time. His were better proportioned and made of lighter wood. He would also flute his bows throughout half, or sometimes the whole, of its length in a highly elegant manner. But most importantly Francis Tourte is credited with having invented the nut that was able to moderate the tension in the hair. This nut worked via a propelling and withdrawing screw and is to be found on most modern violin bows. Tourte's bows are made from pernambuco wood, the most usual form of wood used on professional bows today, bent by being exposed to heat. He established the standard size for violin bows, at around 75 centimetres. Tourte's bows tended to be heavier than previous models, with more wood at the tip of the bow counterbalanced by a heavier frog (the device connecting the hair to the stick at the end nearest the player's hand).

The modern bow was approved of around 1785 or 86 by Spohr, who described them as having " trifling weight with sufficient elasticity of stick and the beautiful and uniform bending, by which the nearest approach to the hair is exactly in the middle between the head and the frog" as well as the "extremely accurate and neat workmanship" in Spohr's " Violinschule " published in 1832. Tourte designed it with Viotti's suggestions. Thus, from the collaboration between these two great men, FXT developed the ideas which would culminate in the creation of the modern bow 1785-1790. Tourte, according to Fetis, fixed the length of the violin bow at 74 to 75 cm, the playing hair at 65 cm, and the balance point at 19 cm above the frog. The weight averaged at around 56 grams. At the height of his career, a single Tourte bow commanded princely sums. Each bow fetched 15 Louis d'Or, and each bow, unless entirely faultless, was destroyed. Like Stradivari, Tourte experimented with design and wood, seeking to perfect his work, and is said to have destroyed that work which failed to meet his standards. During this period, Tourte settled on pernambuco as the ideal wood for bow making, and afterwards, worked ceaselessly to improve the design, ultimately giving the bow its final form, which we know today as the modern bow. He never varnished his bows but only rubbed them with pumice powder and oil. Tourte achieved his bend ( as is still done now ) by heating the wood thoroughly and then bending it. Up to then, bows had been cut at once to the desired bend. The Tourte pattern was followed by Dominique Peccatte, Nicolas Eury, Nicolas Maire, Francois Lupot, Nicolas Maline, Joseph Henry and Persois though these followers did (especially Peccatte and Voirin) tended to make bows about 1 cm shorter.

JACQUES LAFLEUR ( 1757 - 1832 ) Violin and bow maker. Apprenticed in Mirecourt, and under Francois Tourte. He moved to Paris in 1783. His bows resemble those of the early Adam school, and are considered rare. His bows are noted for their elasticity and lightness. Occasionally Maire and Pajeot fils used his brand name. His son, pupil, and successor was Joseph Rene Lafleur who initially started out as a violinist. His bows can be observed in the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire. He also made a bow with a flat stick. ,

CLEMENT EULRY ( c.1760 - c.1835 ) French bow maker and teacher ( or pupil ? ) of Nicolas Maire or Pajeot fils. He was the first maker to use a metal thumb facing on the frog. His bows are similar to Maire's though less carefully finished.

FRANCOIS LUPOT ( 1774 - 1837 ) One of the sons of Francois I, and brother of Nicolas. He claimed to be a pupil of Stradivarius, but this has always been questioned. He invented the metal under slide ( fixed to the upper side of the frog, this piece reduces wear and tear caused by friction as you tighten and loosen the bow hairs ). His bows are considered among the best in France.

NICOLAS EURY ( b.Paris c.1785 d.c.1835 ) A member of the Mirecourt family of violin makers. His bows are very rare, and a number of other makers stamped their bows with his name. Details are few on this maker.

ETIENNE PAJEOT ( 1791 - 1849 )His father, Louis Simon ( c.1750 - 1792 ), was also a bowmaker. Pajeot was a student, then a business partner of Maire. Produced excellent but rare bows.

JEAN PIERRE MARIE PERSOIT ( 1784 - 185? )Employed with Vuillaume for 15 years. His bows are stamped and resemble those of Tourte. Persoit's lifework bears out his claim to a niche close to Tourte's. His bows tend to be slightly heavier and sturdier than those by Tourte, indicating a different ideal for a bow's playability.

His wood selection was remarkable. The heads of Persoits are nearly always bold and forceful in character.

NICHOLAS MALINE (February 28, 1822 - April 28, 1877) in Mirecourt). He was apprenticed in Mirecourt and worked for Etienne Pajeot, J.B. Vuillaume and other makers. Maline came from a family of luthiers including his father Guillaume Maline (long considered to be the bowmaking Maline). In his early work, Maline initially followed the Pajeot example/style, but later in his career followed a very different direction on the basis of what was soon to happen in Paris (D. Peccatte's influence with the "hatchet-shaped" type head). Nicolas Maline came as a very young man to Jean Baptiste Vuillaume, around 1840. Most of Malines best work was sold by the firm of VUILLAUME and bears the latter's brand. His bows of this period reflect the Dominique Peccatte school ("hatchet-shaped" type head). He also made some self-rehairing bows, but also many bows using VUILLAUME-style frogs (round-edged ferrules). According to Bernard Millant and Jean-Franois Raffin, N. Maline certainly was first to use this style. One of histoy's important bowmakers. Maline's bows are among the most recognizable of the finest 19th century French bows.

JEAN DOMINIQUE ADAM ( b 1795 to 1864 ) Pupil and successor to his father Jean Adam. Only his best bows are stamped. His octagonal bows are very much in demand.

J.B.VUILLAUME ( 1798 - 1875 ) was trained as a violin maker in Mirecourt and later became one of the most famous French violin makers of the early 19th century. He set up his own workshop in 1828. He was a good businessman and of course a good inventor. For example he did invent a hollow steel bow, and a self re-hairing bow, though neither these inventions proved to be of lasting importance. He made a profound study of F.X.Tourte's bows, and though he, himself was not a bow maker, he did direct and supervise the work of his own makers. Most Great Bow Makers of the 19th century collaborated with his workshop including Jean Pierre Marie Persois, Dominique Peccatte, Nicolas Remy Maire, Franois Peccatte, Nicolas Maline, Pierre Simon, Franois Nicolas Voirin, Charles Peccatte, and Joseph Fonclause are among the most celebrated.

JOSEPH FONCLAUZE ( 1800 - 1864 ) One of the best French makers. Was trained by Dominique Peccatte ion Mirecourt and in 1820 went to Paris to work for Lupot, Tourte and Vuillaume. From 1840 he worked alone. Most of his bows are stamped. Also Henry Fonclauze ( c. 1812 )

NICOLAS MAIRE ( 1800 - 1878 ) A member of the Mirecourt family of violin and bow makers. He trained in the Lafleur workshop in Paris, where he may also have worked with Pajeot. In 1833 he succeeded Jacques Lafleur. His work varies in style but is consistently of fine craftsmanship.

PAUL SIMON ( 1808 - 82 ) Apprenticed in Mirecourt. Became one of the most important makers of his time. He worked in Paris for Peccatte, Vuillaume and Gand freres. In 1847 he purchased Peccatte's business. His bows have 2 distinct head models, one his own and the other based on a Peccatte model.

DOMINIQUE PECCATTE ( 1810 - 1874 ) was an influential French luthier and bow maker.[1] He was apprenticed in Mirecourt and later worked with Jean Baptiste Vuillaume. He is notable for adapting the "hatchet-shaped" type headÑa model arrived at by TourteÑand is considered one of the most influential bow makers. His brother Franois Peccatte and nephew Charles Peccatte were also notable bow-makers. Apprenticed to a violin maker in Mirecourt, Peccatte soon worked in the workshop of Vuillaume, from 1826 to 1837. Here he studied with Jean Pierre-Marie Persois, and also met Franois Tourte. Like Franois Nicolas Voirin, his early bows were sometimes stamped "VUILLAUME A PARIS". By 1837 he had taken over the workshop of Nicolas Lupot. He returned to Mirecourt in 1847. Although majority of his bows were not branded, Peccatte used a singular brand, "PECCATTE" throughout his mature period.

Some consider his bows second only to those of Tourte. His brother Franois (1820-1855), was also a fine bow maker who worked in Mirecourt.


"Dominique Peccatte, (who is presumed to have learned his craft with Persoit, and apparently worked in the Lupot atelier as well, before a stint in the Vuillaume workshop) continued the trend with a bow patterned after TourteÕs strongest, heaviest model. The Peccatte concept for a bow was generally heavier than anything before him in France, and his output was vast and consistent. If not as flexible as earlier bows, Peccatte bows are still normally fairly flexible; the increase in weight from earlier concepts makes Peccatte bows well suited to the production of the volume of sound and degree of articulation appropriate to large, modern concert halls. The Peccatte bow is one, but not the only, ideal compromise in terms of tone production and handling. Although it neither produces the beauty of tone of a Tourte, nor handles with the nimbleness of a Nicolaus Kittel, a fine Peccatte does everything it must do very well, and with a thick rich sonority. PeccatteÕs two most well known pupils were Joseph Henry and Pierre Simon."

JOSEPH RENE LAFLEUR ( 1812 - 1874 ) Son of Jacques Lafleur, and initially a violinist, he surpassed the work of his father. He learnt much through observing existing bows, and was associated closely with Nicolas Maire.

JOSEPH HENRY ( 1823 - 70 ) Studied with Peccatte in Paris. Established his own business there in 1851. His work is similar in style to that of Peccatte, and he is also known to have worked briefly with Simon.

FRANCOIS NICOLAS VOIRIN ( 1833 - 1885 ) was a French archetier (bowmaker), known in his time as the "Modern Tourte." Voirin was born in Paris France, the brother of Joseph Voirin and cousin to Jean Baptiste Vuillaume.[1] He apprenticed in Mirecourt and later worked in the workshop of Vuillaume from 1855 to 1870 where he revolutionized bow design and construction. Voirin produced a radically different bow from Franois Tourte; Slimmer head; the camber moved closer to head, yielding a stronger stick and reducing the thickness of the shaft especially at the heel. Primarily, Voirin made bows with the Vuillaume-style frog. The micro-photos of Vuillaume were placed mainly in bows by Voirin. Voirin taught Charles Peccatte (1850-1920), son of Franois Peccatte as well as others including Joseph Alfred Lamy also known as Lamy pre, Louis and Claude Thomassin, and Charles Nicolas Bazin. Voirin was one of the great makers of the 19th century along with his predecessors Franois Tourte, Dominique Peccatte, Jean Pierre-Marie Persois, and Etienne Pajeot.[2] Though the earlier bows of Voirin were stamped with the Vuillaume brand, his later work bears his own stamp, F.N.Voirin. "Franois Nicolas Voirin has had a lasting effect and influence over many generations of bowmakers. His bows have been used by the greatest soloists, among them Alard, Ch. Dancla, Eugene Ysaye, Misha Elman, Stern, Emanuel Feuermann, Zukerman, Primrose and today Jian Wang and Viktoria Mulova . " - Filimonov Fine Musical Instruments

JOSEPH ALFRED LAMY (pre) (1850-1919), was a French archetier (bow maker) of the early twentieth century. He was born in Mirecourt, Vosges, France where he apprenticed from 1862-1868, and later worked from 1877 to 1885 for Franois Nicolas Voirin in Paris. Lamy emerged from a great period in French bowmaking and faithfully carried on the tradition. In 1889 he received the silver and gold medals at the Paris Exposition. His son Hippolyte Camille Lamy-fils, (1876-1944) carried on in his father's tradition. Like Franois Nicolas Voirin, Lamy-pre was influenced by Jean Baptiste Vuillaume whose model he frequently used between 1886 and 1890. By 1880 many makers were beginning to consistently aim for an even heavier, stronger model, with varying degrees of success. Lamy's mature period began as early as 1889 to 1890 when he was still only forty. His model, characterized by a slight increase in volume for the sticks as well as for the frogs, became clearer and was adopted definitively. Lamy picked up where Franois Nicolas Voirin left off, with similar variance in weight and quality of materials. His pupils include Eugene Sartory whose work he had influenced as well as that of his son, Lamy-fils. "Today Lamy (pre) is regarded as one of the foremost makers of his generation." - Filimonov Fine Musical Instruments

JOSEPH ARTHUR VIGNERON ( 1851 - 1905 ) Studied with Husson in Mirecourt. Before opening his own workshop in Paris worked for Gand & Freres. His bows were quite solid and followed his own individual style. Somehow they lack the grace of his contemporaries, though his best bows are equal to the finest in his day. He was succeeded by his son AndrŽ ( 1881 - 1924 ) a prolific maker in his father's style. Andre supplied unstamped bows to other makers in Paris.

LOUIS THOMASSIN ( 1855 - c.1905 ) After working with Bazin in Mirecourt went to Paris in 1872 to work with Voirin, and later with Lamy. From 1891 he had his own workshop in Paris. His son and pupil, Claude ( 1870 - 1942 ) also made fine bows in Paris, based on Voirin's model.

EUGéNE SARTORY (1871 - 1946) was taught by his father in Mirecourt, France. He worked in Paris for Charles Peccatte and Alfred Lamy before setting up on his own in 1893. He fortified the Voirin model, producing sturdily built bows with strong shafts. Later on Sartory innovated the design of his bows; widening the head and altering the shaft cross-section as well as thickening the shaft above the handle. These changes provided more stability and reliability in the handling. His bows are marked "E.SARTORY A PARIS". The apex of the trend toward heavy, strong bows was exemplified in the output of Eugene Sartory, who developed a style of bow to which his atelier adhered consistently for decades. Vigneron and Jules Fetique produced bows that at times could rival a Sartory in terms of strength and handling, but the consistency of Sartory bows has made them a perennial favorite among musicians even if they lack some of the subtlety of older bows. Sartory bows are utterly reliable as playing tools and will satisfy a wide variety of players.

VICTOR FETIQUE ( 1872 - 1933 ) son of Charles-Claude. Formed by Husson (Charles-Claude), Maline (Sigisbert) et Miquel (Emile). Worked in Paris with Charles-Nicolas Bazin (the second) in 1901. Established himself in 1913. Other than his son (Marcel) and his brother (Jules), Thomassin, Toussain, RŽmi, Morizot, Richaume and the German maker Paul Weidhaas (who Victor Fetique trained) worked for him. . Signed his bows Vtor FŽtique. Was from a French family of bow makers. He was apprenticed in Mirecourt, working for C.N.Bazin, before joining Caressa & Francais in Paris in 1901. From 1913 he worked independently. His bows are patterned after those of Voirin, though less distinct. Characteristics : Made in Paris, France c. 1920 Wood: Pernambucco Colour: Reddish brown, Shape: Round but often Octagonal and very strong, Frog: Ebony with a Parisian eye, Mounting: Silver, Button: One-piece silver cap, Lapping: Silver winding with a leather trim.

JULES FETIQUE ( 1875 - 1951 ) the brother of Victor FETIQUE, Jules FŽtique served his apprenticeship under Emile MIQUEL before joining Charles Nicolas BAZIN. In 1902, FETIQUE joined the workshop of Eugne SARTORY in Paris with whom he remained until 1912. This collaboration had a strong influence on his style. During this period he also worked for his brother Victor FETIQUE. In 1912, FETIQUE worked with CARESSA et FRANCAIS but maintened his collaboration with Eugne SARTORY. He left CARESSA et FRANCAIS in 1934 and established his own workshop at Rue de Moscou in Paris, with AndrŽ DUGAD, himself a former collaborator of CARESSA et FRANCAIS. At that time, FETIQUE ended his collaboration with Eugene SARTORY. His style changed and became more influenced by the school of PECCATTE.

Honors & Awards

In 1927, Fetique received the diploma of '1st Ouvrier de France' and in 1937, the 'Diplome d'Honneur' at the International Paris Exhibition.

EMILE FRAN‚OIS OUCHARD ( 1872 - 1951 ) Studied with Eugene Cuniot-Hury in Mirecourt, succeeding his business. Great French bow maker. Studied with Eugene Cuniot-Hury in Mirecourt, succeeding his business. Also know as simply FRAN‚OIS OUCHARD (1872-1951). Apprenticed to Eugene Cuniot (of Cuniot-Hury) at age 14. Set up his own workshop in 1923 in Mirecourt.

EMILE A.OUCHARD ( 1900 - 1969 ) was son of Emile Franois. Worked in Paris, Chicago and New York., returning to France in the mid 1950s. His bows are similar to those of the Voirin-Lamy school. His son, Bernard, ( b.1925 ) became his pupil, and worked with Vidoudez in Geneva before being appointed professor of bow making at the Mirecourt school in 1971. In a London shop in 2004 a violin bow by Emile Auguste Ouchard, Paris, c1940, round stick, mounted with silver and ebony has a Price of £7,500. - Following Sartory, E. A. Ouchard produced an even heavier and stiffer type of bow. There are some Ouchard bows that perform beautifully as tools, but many of them are just too stiff to be considered optimal as playing tools.

BERNARD OUCHARD ( 1925- 1979) responsible for the rebirth of the Great New French School of Bow Making ; In 1971 he returned to Mirecourt where he accepted the position of professor of bowmaing with the Ecole de Lutherie in Mirecourt, training to the highest standards young bow makers such as Benoit Rolland, J.F.Raffin, Stephane Tomachot, Jean Grunberger, George Tepho, Martin Devillers, Eric Grandchamp (to name a few) and subsequently indirectly inspired the newest generation of award winning makers including Edwin Clement, S. Bigot, Gilles Nehr and Yannick LeCanu.

ANDRE RICHAUME ( 1905 - 1966 ) Apprenticed with Emile Francois Ouchard in Mirecourt, before joining his uncle, Victor FŽtique in Paris. He worked on his own from 1923 to 1957. Was named " Meilleur Ouvrier de France " Suplied fine bows to other Parisian makers under his own brand.

JEAN-JACQUES MILLANT (1928-1998) was a French archetier of the Dominique Peccatte school. His cousin, Bernard Millant (b. 1929) produced bows similar in style. Millant, son of violin maker Roger Millant, was apprenticed in Mirecourt, Vosges, France by the Morizot Brothers from 1946-1948, then worked with his uncle, Roger and Max Millant in Paris until 1950. Afterwhich he opened his own shop in Paris. In 1970, Millant was awarded the title Un de Meilleurs Ouvriers de France. His bows, which are strongly influenced by Franois Peccatte and Dominique Peccatte, quickly enjoyed great esteem among the most highly demanding professionals. Millant made excellent playing bows (following the Peccatte pattern). Millant bows function much as good facsimile Peccattes. The combination of choice of materials, weight, strength, and flexibility make them excellent playing tools, and bows by this maker are becoming increasingly desirable in the market today and are sought after by top professionals. Jean-Jacques Millant is considered one of the most important bowmakers of the latter part of the 20th century.


JOHN DODD ( London 1752 - Surrey 1839 ) son of Edward Dodd ( Sheffield 1705- London 1810 ), who was also a bow maker, even though his bows were often unstamped. In fact it is not entirely certain whether father Edward ever lived ! However, John Dodd became the greatest English bow maker until Tubbs. He was a gunlock fitter and then a money-scale maker before turning to bow making. His later bows are particularly fine, though judged to be a little short. John Dodd was a contemporary of F.X.Tourte and worked in London. He made fine bows, but his measurements and quality of bows are never entirely consistent. For instance, some bows were made slightly shorter than the norm. Though Dodd was often in dire need of funds, it was recounted that he was very secretive about his art, and once turned down an offer of 1000 pounds sterling for a copy of his pattern. He also refused to teach pupils for the same reason. Dodd used 2 forms for the head ; the slender "swan" type and the squat " hammer " head type, more common in Italy and France. An excellent choice of Pernambuco wood was available to Dodd and much of this came to England in the form of Barrels. This explains the numerous traces of nail holes which sometimes run right through his sticks. According to Baillot, it seems that Viotti may have used a Dodd bow which was about 2? cm shorter than the Tourte model. Many of Dodd's bows have this fault of not being long enough. He arrived at a similar bow design to Tourte, though through entirely independent means.

THOMAS TUBBS ( c.1770 - c1830 ) witnessed the birth of the modern bow. The quality of his work was variable. His son, William ( c.1805 - 1878? ), was also a bow maker, though his bows are rare.

JAMES TUBBS ( b.1835 d.1919 ) Son of William. He worked in London, at first for W.E Hill & Sons. The most famous member of this bow-making family. An eccentric man, who made many highly individual bows. Strange action & balance require some getting used to. Together with his son Alfred ( d.1912 ) they produced more than 5000 bows. Another member of the family was Edward, who worked in New York around the turn of the century.

W.E.HILL & SONS. designed own bow, English in character, from Dodd & Tubbs. Many 20th C English bow-makers passed through Hill workshops.

MALCOM MORRIS TAYLOR ( b.1933 ) Apprenticed with Hills & Sons, also working there until 1973. Set up his own workshop in Barnstaple, Devon . His pupils include John Clutterbuck, Stephan Bristow and Brian Alvey, all at Hill's.

MICHAEL JOHN TAYLOR ( b.1949 ) Trained at Ealing Strings, London. His fine bows combine the Tourte model with a more sturdy and solid English framework.


LUDWIG CHRISTIAN AUGUST BAUSCH ( 1805 - 1871 ) Studied in Dresden and eventually set up his own firm in Leipzig. He combined the best elements of French and German styles, and achieved enough fame to be called the "German Tourte". His 2 sons, Otto and Ludwig produced bows until 1908.

NICOLAUS KITTEL (1805-1868) was a Russian bow maker of German origin worked in St. Petersburg and was known as the "Russian Tourte". In Czarist Russia Nicolas Kittel served as violinmaker to the court, and produced bows of unsurpassed quality, often using beautiful, highly flamed wood. The design of Kittel bows is also derived from an advanced Tourte model although this interpretation of Tourte is distinctly different from the French interpretations. Kittel bows are nearly always quite light and flexible. Despite their flexibility, Kittel bows have extremely quick playing characteristics alongside a unique beauty of tone. "His bows have been used by the greatest soloists, among them Heifetz, Elman, Stern, Kogan, Menuhin and today Vadim Repin. Kittel bows are extremely rare. In 1999, a gold and tortoiseshell-mounted violin bow made in St Petersburg in the mid 19th century by Nicolaus Kittel, from the The Yehudi Menuhin Collection, fetched £51,000 (Sotheby's auction, London), more than three times the high pre-sale estimate (est: £10,000-15,000)." - Filimonov Fine Violins

( FRANZ ) ALBERT II NURNBERGER ( 1854 - 1931 ) Worked with his father, Franz Albert I, ( son of Karl Gottlieb ) in Markneukirchen. His father founded the bow making school there. He ( Albert II ) established himself around 1880, using Vuillaume, Tubbs and Touerte bows as models. His brand was also used by his son, Karl Albert ( b1906 ). The earlier bows are superior to the latest models with this family. Others include Johann Christoph, who worked for 5 years with Vuillaume and Philipp Paul, son of Albert II, who established himself in 1897.

HERMAN RICHARD PFRETZSCHNER ( b.1857 )was first a pupil of his father, then of Vuillaume in Paris. He established himself in 1880. He created the "Wilhelmj" bow. His sticks are not varnished. ( common with German bows )

SIEGFRIED FINKEL ( b.1927 ) From a Swiss bow maker family. They continued the work of Ewald Weidhaas in Markneukirchen. Siegfried studied with Ewald's son, Paul, also becoming Paul's son in law. He worked on his own in Brienz from 1952. His bows are well made Germanic versions of the Peccatte model. Seigfried taught his son and pupil Johannes ( b.1947 ).